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X-RAY RUNS: Apply for Beamtime

2017  Nov 1 - Dec 21

2018  Feb 7 - Apr 3
2018  Proposal/BTR deadline: 12/1/17

2018  Apr 11 - Jun 4
2018  Proposal/BTR deadline: 2/1/18


Monday, September 18, 2017, 10:00 am

Louisa Smieska
Metropolitan Museum of Art

"Scanning X-ray fluorescence at CHESS and The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Case studies in cultural heritage research"

Abstract: Scanning x-ray fluorescence (XRF) is increasingly employed by numerous fields to map spatial distributions of elements in a variety of samples and objects. In cultural heritage research, scanning XRF is valued for its noninvasive nature, its ability to recover hidden features, and its contributions to questions of attribution and dating. In this talk, I will present case studies from my research in cultural heritage at CHESS and the Metropolitan Museum of Art that have challenged the standard experimental and analytical procedures and expanded the capabilities of scanning XRF.

The first section of my talk with focus on scanning XRF measurements that took place at CHESS in 2016 and 2017. My first case study, a painting attributed to 19th-century French artist Honoré Daumier, provides a comparison of laboratory-based and synchrotron-based scanning XRF measurements of the same object. The ability at CHESS to excite the painting well below and far above the lead L-edge revealed information out of reach for a laboratory-based system. I will also discuss my analysis of pigments in illuminated manuscript fragments from the Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections. Trace element analysis of natural mineral pigments, particularly the copper-rich mineral azurite, has benefited from high-energy x-rays available at CHESS. In addition, this study provided a test case for a new experimental capability at CHESS: simultaneous collection of x-ray diffraction patterns during scanning XRF measurements with the Maia detector. Analysis of this rich data set has emphasized the importance of elemental associations, not just static elemental maps, to reach a full understanding of the results.

In the second part of my talk, I will present measurements made using a laboratory-based scanning XRF system at the Metropolitan Museum of Art to examine turquoise stones in ancient Egyptian jewelry. I compare my scanning XRF results with a prior point XRF survey at The Met, confirming that the scanning XRF analysis is compatible with but much more comprehensive than the point analyses. This project revealed limitations in existing analytical software, and led me to write a proof-of-concept analytical routine for interactive exploration of elemental concentration ratios, effectively doubling the number of elements that can be compared at once. I will conclude by discussing the impact that scanning XRF has already had across departments at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and identify possible directions for future progress in its application to cultural heritage science.


Wednesday, September 13, 2017, 1:00 pm

Jesse Hopkins
Cornell University

"Pushing the envelope for biological SAXS: developing novel techniques, instrumentation, and software"

Abstract: Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an increasingly popular technique for obtaining structural information from biological macromolecules and complexes in solution. With the growing popularity has come an expanding arsenal of different experimental approaches and analysis techniques to allow SAXS to address challenging biological problems. This talk will focus on my contributions to this arsenal, and is divided into three parts.

First I will discuss the possibility of millisecond data collection at ultra-bright X-ray sources and how it may reduce radiation damage in SAXS. Radiation damage places serious constraints on SAXS experiments, and many current synchrotron beamlines have to attenuate their beam to collect undamaged data. My experiments, carried out at the European Molecular Biology (EMBL) P12 bioSAXS beam line at DESY (Hamburg, Germany), show that it is possible to collect data faster than some of the damage can physically manifest in the system, effectively 'outrunning' the radiation damage. This paves the way to full utilization of ultra-bright beamlines for routine SAXS. These experiments also provide insight into the timescales of the fundamental radiation chemistry and physics involved in the damage process.

The second part of the talk will focus on novel methods of SAXS data collection being developed at MacCHESS and Cornell. I will discuss my development of millisecond capable time resolved SAXS instrumentation at the G1 beamline, including preliminary tests of this system using the lysozyme refolding reaction, and how this might evolve in the future. I will also briefly touch on the current status and future possibilities of low temperature SAXS (cryoSAXS). In the last part of the talk, I will showcase my continued development of the BioXTAS RAW analysis software for SAXS that is used by at least five beamlines (and many individual investigators) around the world. This will cover improvements and additions to the software, such as the evolving factor analysis method, as well as future directions for the software.


Thursday, September 7, 2017, 10:00 am

Qingteng Zhang
Argonne National Laboratory

"Mesoscale Dynamics Studied with Time-resolved Coherent X-ray Scattering"

Abstract: Thermally-driven spatial fluctuation exists in both 'soft' and 'hard' condensed matter. A common example is the spontaneous (Brownian) motion of colloidal particles in suspension. The measurement of spontaneous fluctuations shines light on the energy landscape of the system and the temperature dependence of the energy landscape reveals the nature of the phase transitions. Fluctuations can be measured via the decorrelation of intensity 'speckles' in x-ray scattering patterns produced by coherent light-a technique referred to as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). The tremendous boost in coherent flux brought by new MBA sources leads to unprecedented scientific opportunities. Two examples are ultrafast XPCS with time resolution matching the diffusion time of nanoparticles suspended in aqueous media, and XPCS with sensitivity to nanoscale domain fluctuations in epitaxial atomic layers.

My talk will have two parts related to these growth areas for MBA-enabled XPCS. In the first part, I will present studies on gelation in a thermally-reversible colloidal gel using the world's fastest 2D photon-counting x-ray detector (frame rate of 50 kHz). The fast time resolution allows us to study the formation of nascent gel structures from aqueous state and reveals physical mechanisms that are different from aging observed at longer times after the onset of gel formation. Our results provide insight into intriguing self-similar physical processes related to gel network percolation that can take thousands of seconds despite the fact that the diffusion time of particles is less than a millisecond. In the second part, I will describe measurements of thermally-activated fluctuations of ferroelectric polarization nanodomains in a ferroelectric/dielectric superlattice where the polarizations are differentiated by atomic displacements as small as tens of pm. It is intriguing that despite the large difference in the time scale and activation energy, the temporal decorrelation of the nanodomains follows patterns similar to those found in soft materials with analogous spatial structures. I will conclude with preliminary results from NSLS-II (currently one of the brightest sources in the world) that will inspire future work at Sirius with its even higher coherent flux.


Monday, July 31, 2017, 10:00 am

Machine Talk:  Watch on YouTube Live
Eric Miller
Tufts University

"Overview of Machine Learning with an Eye Toward Materials Science"

Abstract: Our aim with this talk is to provide a high level perspective of Machine Learning suitable for non-specialists. Two broad classes of problems, into which that vast majority of applications fit, will be discussed: supervised and unsupervised learning. In the former case, one is provided with a set of input-output pairs, commonly known as "training data," from which to construct a model that can be used to predict new input data whose output is not known. Unsupervised learning on the other hand is concerned with determining interesting or in some sense relevant patterns that exist in a given set of unstructured data. Owing to the speaker’s strong biases, the primary focus of the exposition with be the development of probabilistic methods for addressing both of these problems though some attention will be given to alternative ideas including the much-hyped Deep Learning approach. Finally, owing to the audience, the talk will conclude with some examples from the literature where these ideas and methods have been brought to bear on problems of material science.


Friday, June 23, 2017, 1:00 pm

Angelia Seyfferth
University of Delaware

"An exploration of arsenic and other trace elements at the soil-plant interface across scales and environments"

Abstract: Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic metalloid that is naturally present in the environment at trace levels. In addition, arsenic can be introduced to environments through pesticide use and other human activities. Here, we explore the nano-to-microscale processes that occur in soil/sediment environments that allow arsenic to be mobilized and plant-available, and the macroscale implications of those processes. Synchrotron-based imaging and spectroscopy are utilized in conjunction with wet chemical methods to elucidate how arsenic and other metals makes their way into food (rice, mushrooms) that we commonly consume. We will also explore ways that we can lower arsenic (and other metal) accumulation in those foods via soil manipulation.


Thursday, June 8, 2017, 12:00 pm

Hyeri Lee
Cornell University

"For Brighter Electron Sources: A Cryogenically Cooled Photocathode and DC Photogun"

Abstract: Electron beams produced by photoinjectors have a wide range of applications including colliders for high energy and nuclear physics experiments, Free Electron Lasers (FEL), Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL), and Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) with a variety of uses. These applications have been made possible by recent advancement in photocathode and photoinjector research. The key factor is building a compact high-brightness electron source with high voltage and electric field at the photocathode to maximize the electron emission and minimize emittance growth due to space-charge effect. Achieving high brightness from a compact source is a challenging task because it involves an often-conflicting interplay between various requirements imposed by photoemission, acceleration, and beam dynamics. This thesis describes a new design of a DC photoemission gun and beamline constructed at Cornell University, along with demonstration of a cryogenically cooled photocathode and transmission photocathode.


Wednesday, June 7, 2017, 10:00 am

Zhirong Huang

"Generation of High-Power, Tunable Terahertz Radiation from Laser Interaction with a Relativistic Electron Beam"

Abstract: We propose a method based on the slice energy spread modulation to generate strong subpicoseond density bunching in high-intensity relativistic electron beams. A laser pulse with periodic intensity envelope is used to modulate the slice energy spread of the electron beam, which can then be converted into density modulation after a dispersive section. It is found that the double-horn slice energy distribution of the electron beam induced by the laser modulation is very effective to increase the density bunching. Since the modulation is performed on a relativistic electron beam, the process does not suffer from strong space charge force or coupling between phase spaces, so that it is straightforward to preserve the beam quality for terahertz (THz) radiation and other applications. We show in both theory and simulations that the tunable radiation from the beam can cover the frequency range of 1-10 THz with high power and narrow-band spectra, and discuss recent experimental studies of this scheme.


Monday, May 22, 2017, 10:00 am

Amy Clarke
Colorado School of Mines

"In-situ Imaging of Metallic Alloy Solidification Dynamics for Advanced Manufacturing"

Abstract: Solidification is critical to processes like casting and additive manufacturing and the manufacture of metallic alloy components we use in our everyday lives. State-of-the-art characterization techniques, now available at U.S. DOE User Facilities and in the laboratory, are not only enabling fundamental studies of metallic alloy solidification dynamics, but also in-operando, in-situ deformation, and manufacturing studies. Here we use x-ray, proton, and electron imaging to study solidification dynamics from the micro-scale to the macro-scale, at times ranging from microseconds to minutes. Our experimental results are used to inform, develop, and validate computational models at the same length and time-scales. Integrating in-situ characterization and modeling will yield the prediction and control of metallic alloy solidification dynamics and the creation of microstructures and properties by design with advanced manufacturing. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.


Friday, May 5, 2017, 1:00 pm

Mikhail Noginov
Norfolk State University




Friday, April 28, 2017, 1:00 pm

Anders Ryd
CMS, Cornell University

"The CMS detector upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC"

Abstract: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started operation in 2010. A very successful first run from 2010 to 2012 produced the data samples used by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations to discover the Higgs. CERN is planning a significant upgrade, the High Luminosity LHC, to the LHC in 2024 to 2026. To cope with the increased luminosity and the radiation environment the CMS experiment is planning major upgrades for the operation beyond 2026. In this talk I will give an overview of the challenges and plans for the upgrades of the CMS detector for the High Luminosity LHC operation with special attention to the contributions Cornell are making to this project.


Wednesday, April 12, 2017, 11:00 am

Thesis Defense:
Steven Full
Cornell University

"First Measurements of Ion Trapping in a High Intensity Linear Accelerator"

Abstract: A charged particle beam will rapidly ionize any residual gas in an accelerator's vacuum chamber. If that beam is negatively charged, the resulting positive ions will be unable to escape from the center of the beam, a phenomenon known as ion trapping. Ion trapping has often been observed in circular accelerators, but has never before been seen in a single-pass linear accelerator until recently.

In this talk I will present definitive proof of ion trapping in the Cornell photoinjector, an electron beam linac. I will share simulations showcasing the negative impacts on beam properties due to trapped ions, as well as several techniques for removing these ions. Because Ion trapping occurs only at high beam powers capable of melting any material within microseconds, I will also present a new beam diagnostic capable of measuring beam properties in this regime.

Thesis Advisor: Georg Hoffstaetter


Thursday, March 16, 2017, 1:00 pm (rescheduled from 3/15)

Dr. Henri Lee
Pohang Accelerator Lab, Korea

"Can we make reliable capillary optics?"

Abstract: CHESS is a leader in mono bounce capillary optic since CHESS has been developing it and its technology more than 10 years. CHESS capillaries mostly have rotationally symmetric ellipsoidal shape and this is suitable focusing optic for current CHESS beamlines to deliver x-ray beam into 10~50um spot size due to its large intercepted beam area.

As for CHESS-U and other 3rd Synchrotrons, both x-ray source size and emittance are getting smaller, a great leap in capillary technology is on demand to meet their purpose. Desirable capillaries should provide smaller focused beam size and/or extended x-ray energy regime To realize these properties, Micron-scale Controlled Capillary (MC2-cap1), Metal Coated Capillary (MC2-cap2), and both are inevitable.

The issue of MC2-cap1 is realizing a good capillary with high profile accuracy and overall straightness in micron scale. A process optimization for single pulling (making) process is surely possible but it is more like a master craftsman’s work. On the other hand, to realize this MC2-cap1 in general, multiple modification and measurement (figure) could be introduced to meet each parametric tolerance.

The aim of metal coated capillary, of MC2-cap2 is to extend available x-ray energy regime higher than 30keV or to enhance gain efficiency by increasing intercepted beam area. For these purposes, increasing critical energy of x-ray reflectivity is essential by proper thin layer coating. High-Z metal or its compound are desirable and Platinum can be a typical candidate.

In addition, I’ll briefly summarize my work in CHESS during my sabbatical and discuss possible collaborations.

  Process concept of micron-scale modification by iterative thermal process.


Friday, March 3, 2017, 1:00 pm

Dr. Kelly Nygren
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
University of Wisconsin Madison

"Beneath the Fracture Surface: Directly observing the microstructure beneath striations to understand the role of hydrogen during fatigue crack growth in stainless steels"

Abstract: The presence of hydrogen in metals and alloys can lead to premature or catastrophic failure known as hydrogen embrittlement. While this phenomenon has been studied for over a century, the physical driving mechanisms for it are not fully understood, resulting in a paucity of functioning, physically based predictive models. Understanding the relationship between microstructure and macroscale properties is essential to illuminate the under-lying mechanisms, but remains a primary challenge in materials science. A multi-scale approach is one central way of addressing this problem. In this series of studies, the evolved microstructural state and subsequent fracture path following fatigue loading of SUS 304 and SUS 316L austenitic stainless steels is analyzed in the presence and absence of internal hydrogen (104 wppm). Single-edge notch specimens of uncharged and hydrogen-charged SUS 304 and SUS 316L were subjected to uniaxial fatigue tests performed at R = 0.1 and a frequency of 1 Hz. The fracture surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and electron transparency samples were extracted using focused ion beam machining from regions containing features of interest. The microstructure directly beneath these striations was assessed using conventional diffraction contrast imaging techniques as well as zone-axis scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging conditions.

The high hydrogen content led to a reduction in fatigue life for all samples. Direct observation of the microstructure beneath regions of interest can be treated as a series of evolving microstructural zones as a function of depth, relating to the microstructure occurring during fatigue crack growth. Beneath each striated surface, there exists a region of refined grains or rotations at the fracture surface, followed by a banded region superimposed on dense dislocation cells. The bands were martensitic laths and deformation twins in SUS 304 and SUS 316L, respectively. The impact of hydrogen is interpreted through differences in the development of these two microstructural regions, specifically in terms of the effect of hydrogen on the collective behavior of dislocations, deformation twinning, and the transition of fracture mode. Additional comments on current understanding of striation formation and fatigue crack advance will be made.


Friday, February 24, 2017, 1:00 pm

Ernie Fontes
Associate Director, CHESS

"The CHESS-U upgrade project: why all the work?"

Abstract: Make no mistake: replacing a sixth of CESR and building six new x-ray beamlines in half-a-year or so will be one of the biggest challenges Wilson laboratory has ever undertaken. The primary reason to do this is to keep CHESS on the cutting-edge of providing unique x-ray research capabilities and enabling new types of scientific investigations. At the completion of CHESS-U in 2018, CHESS will be the premier synchrotron source in the US for x-ray microscopy and time-resolved studies in the 20-100 keV regime with the speed, sensitivity, and versatility to push R&D frontiers. This talk will try to explain the future scientific needs our research community envisions, as well as how those needs are shaping the scope of the project.


Friday, February 10, 2017, 1:00 pm

Georg Hoffstaetter

"CBETA: A new type of accelerator and the world’s first multi-turn SRF-ERL with FFAG return loop"

Abstract: At Wilson lab, a new type of particle accelerator is being constructed that opens the door to the production of medium energy (a few hundred MeV) and high current (a few times ten mA) electron beam of very high power. This presentation will cover the accelerator's design, its beam dynamics, the status of construction, plans for its completion, and applications of this new kind of accelerator.