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X-RAY RUNS: Apply for Beamtime

2017  March 15 - April 24

2017  May 17 - June 29
2017  BTR deadline: 04/17/17

2017  October 11 - December 21
2017  Proposal deadline: 08/01/17
2017  BTR deadline: 09/10/17

Friday, December 19, 2008

Wuyi Meng, Director of IU Molecular Structure Center
Indiana University

"Facing the Phase Problem"

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CHESS Special Journal Club
Note day and time

Tuesday, December 16, 2008 -
2:00pm, 380 Wilson Lab

David Smith, Fermiscan

"Beamline Automation:  Hardware, Software, and Users"

Most, if not all, synchrotron beamlines are constantly pushing to become more automated and more user-friendly. The most noticeable automation gains arise through hardware improvements that lead to significant increases in throughput. These hardware improvements range from faster x-ray detectors to specialized robotics, all of which are designed to increase sample throughput and/or beamline safety. Further automation gains are realized through software. Automated data processing can give users results that may permit on-site experimental fine-tuning, or suggest data collection strategies which can optimize beam-time usage, or even tell the user which sample will produce the best data. However, the greatest automation results occur when the user community works closely with beamline staff. Once users buy-in to helping, achievements such as unattended overnight data collection, automated sample screening and best sample picking can occur. These advances lead to beamlines increasing data collection quality and throughput each year while decreasing user fatigue and user’s costs associated with synchrotron visits.

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Friday, November 14, 2008

Ken Finkelstein, Senior Staff Scientist
CHESS Department, Cornell University

 

"Optimized Anomalous Scattering at the ERL"

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Friday, November 7, 2008

Edwin Walker, Associate Professor
Chemistry Department, Southern University
and A & M College

 

"The Non-Isothermal Kinetic Investigation for Lithium Insertion into Cobalt Oxide"

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Friday, October 24, 2008

Michael Grunze, Assistant and Chair
Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Germany

 

"The Solid/Water Interface- as perceived by Ulva spores"

M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, D. Schilp, X.Cao, M.Heidt, Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, INF 253, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

In this talk we will compare common features and distinct differences of non-fouling surfaces used in marine environments and biomedical applications.  Marine fouling is a serious problem in energy conservation for shipping, water purification, and marine aquaculture.  Present approaches involve toxic chemicals, and there is an urgent need to develop environmentally benign strategies for non-fouling surfaces.  We find, that chemistry is highly specific to different organisms, whereas molecular conformation, surface charge and surface topography can be indiscriminate.  The effect of different sugars and RGD peptide sequences on settlement and their specific effects on different organisms will be demonstrated.  I also discuss how chemical composition and surface topographic features in the nano-and micrometer length scale influence settlement behavior measured by in line optical holography and how different design concepts for non-fouling surfaces can be combined.  For Ulva Spores (common green macro algae) a minimum of settlement is observed on hydrophilic topographic structures with protrusions (ridges) separated by approximately half the size of the organism.  We will discuss these results in the context of the life cycle of Ulva and a "maximum footprint hypothesis" for cellular adhesion.

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Friday, October 17, 2008

Alan Grossfield, Assistant Professor
Department of Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center

 

"Exploring GPCR Structure and Dynamics with Molecular Dynamics Simulations"

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CHESS Special Journal Club

Wednesday, October 1, 2008 -
3:00pm

Suntao Wang, Research Associate
Brookhaven National Lab

"Two-dimensional Self-assembled TMV Arrays on Lipid Membranes"

Bionanoparticles are ideal building blocks for creating ordered two-dimensional (2D) structures. The 2D protein crystals or ordered arrays are of great scientific and technological interest. In this talk, we demonstrate the use of in-situ x-ray scattering techniques (XR and GISAXS) to monitor the formation of self-assembled, 2D ordered arrays by tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) on a lipid layer that was either supported by a solid substrate or formed at the liquid-vapor interface. We found that the lipid monolayer and the divalent ions are two crucial factors for the formation of well ordered, closely packed 2D TMV arrays. In addition, the ordering of 2D structures strongly depends on the charge density in the lipid monolayer. Atomic Force Microscopy was also used to directly image the final structure to provide real space confirmation of developed structural order.

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Friday, September 26, 2008

Buz Barstow
Physics Department, Cornell University

 

"Direct Correlation of Protein Structure and Function by High Pressure X-Ray Crystallography"

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Hugh Phillip 

Friday, September 19, 2008

Hugh Philipp and Marianne Hromalik
Physics Department, Cornell University

"Pixel Array Detector (PAD) for Coherent X-ray Imaging...and other stuff"

A 2-D array detector (PAD) has been developed at Cornell for coherent x-ray imaging experiments that will be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's (SLAC) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL).  The detector is designed to operate with continuous framing rates of 120 Hz; to accurately detect single photons; and to measure scattering patterns produced with femtosecond timescale pulses that produce high instantaneous per-pixel count rates in excess of 1016 photon per second.

The detector design and measured performance will be presented.  Applications for this detector beyond coherent x-ray imaging at LCLS will be a topic of discussion.

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Friday, August 22, 2008

Heung-Soo Lee, Visiting Scientist
CHESS, Cornell University

 

"Introduction to Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) and 3-D Modeling for Capillary Far-field X-ray Patterns"

 

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Friday, July 25, 2008

 

John Gregoire
Physics, Cornell University

"High Energy XRD for High-Throughput Analysis of Composition Spread Thin Films"

The study of composition spread thin films is an increasingly popular technique for materials discovery and optimization. Commonly, an inorganic library is created by the deposition of a thin film with continually varying composition. The film is then tested for a desired property whose variation with composition and thermodynamic phase yields insight into the materials problem at hand. Traditional characterization techniques for the determination of film composition and crystallographic properties are prohibitive given the time and effort required for analysis of the entire library. We are developing a new technique for the high-throughput characterization of sputter deposited thin films with attention given to the quintessential challenges of thin-film phase mapping, for example the existence of metastable phases, evolution of fiber texture, and alloy-shifting of lattice constants. X-ray diffraction in the transmission geometry is performed with a 60keV (monochromatic) incident beam, and diffraction images are acquired with a MAR345 image plate. The large Ewald radius (~300/nm) and placement of the image plate allow for simultaneous detection of Bragg reflections with a d-spacing range of 0.05nm to more than 0.5nm. Also, the choice of substrate tilt affords detection of phases exhibiting strong fiber texture. The use of 60keV x-rays is also valuable as this energy incites fluorescence from film atoms which is acquired simultaneous to the XRD images and used to determine film composition. The substrate is mounted on a translation stage and automated acquisition of crystallographic and composition data is performed on a grid of samples in the combinatorial library. Software is being developed for automated data analysis, which will offer a comprehensive technique for the high-throughput characterization of composition spread thin films.

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Friday, July 18, 2008

Ruipeng Li, Visiting Scientist
CHESS, Cornell University

 

"Micro-Beam Progress at D-line, CHESS"

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Friday, July 11, 2008

Daniel Schuette, Graduate Student
Physics, Cornell University

"The Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector"

 

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Friday, June 27, 2008

Xinguo Hong, Visiting Staff Scientist
MacCHESS, Cornell University

 

"Bio-SAXS and Bio-WAXS developments at CHESS"

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CHESS Special Journal Club

Monday, April 14, 2008 -
2:00pm, Wilson Commons

Dr. Joel Parriott, Program Examiner
Office of Management and Budget
Executive Office of the President

 

"Sausage Making and the Federal Science Budget Process: Implications for Universities"

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Friday, March 28, 2008

Roy Clarke, Professor of Physics
University of Michigan

 

"Emergent Phenomena at Epitaxial Interfaces: A Structural View"

Recent discoveries at the film-substrate interface in epitaxial oxide heterostructures such as LaAlO3-SrTiO3 have opened the lid on a wealth of "emergent" correlated electron phenomena. Examples include: novel metal-insulator behavior, interfacial superconductivity, and the onset of "colossal" magnetoresistance. Structural insights provided by direct x-ray phasing methods are essential to understanding the physics of these systems [PRL 99, 155502 (2007)].

Roy Clarke is a Professor of Applied Physics at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and is active in the Materials Research Society and the American Vacuum Society. His research spans a broad range of topics in epitaxial thin films, most recently in the behavior of interfaces in nanoscale magnetic and ferroelectric thin films. Much of this work bears on technological applications and the company he co-founded, k-Space Associates, serves the need for in-situ real-time metrology in semiconductor device production.

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Friday, March 21, 2008

Jocelyn Rose, Associate Professor
Director of the Cornell Initiative
Dept. of Plant Biology

 

"Proteomics Based Discovery of New Plant Cell Wall Localized Enzymes"

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Friday, February 29, 2008

George Flynn, Team Leader, Chemical Analysis NASA Stardust Science Team, Professor of Physics
Astrochemistry, SUNY Plattsburgh

"STARDUST: The Mission and the Critical Role of X-ray Chemical Analysis"

NASA's Stardust spacecraft collected dust in low-density silica aerogel during its passage through the dust coma of Comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2004. The aerogel capture cells, containing hundreds of Wild 2 particles, were recovered on January 15, 2006.

A compact, single grain captured in low-density aerogel produces an entry damage track several hundred times the diameter of the particle, with an intact particle at the end of the track. Initial inspection of the Wild 2 samples indicated that, as expected, the comet dust was very weak. Most particles broke up on collection, depositing material all along the entry track.

X-Ray Microprobes, with their ability to penetrate into the interior of the aerogel, permitted the distribution of all but the lightest elements (Z < sulfur) to be mapped over the entire entry track. Seven groups of investigators using six synchrotrons on four continents contributed to the preliminary chemical characterization of the Wild 2 samples, determining the element distributions in 23 tracks.

The X-Ray Microprobe analyses demonstrated that the compositions of the terminal particles, which were generally dominated by mineral grains (olivine, pyroxene, or Fe-sulfide) were quite different from the composition of the finer-grained material deposited along the entry track. Thus, the composition of the incident particle could not be determined simply by extracting a terminal grain and analyzing it with conventional laboratory instruments, such as an electron microprobe. X-Ray Microprobes provided the critical analytical capability to characterize the material distributed along the entry tracks.

The average elemental composition of the 23 particles agrees well with the composition of the CI carbonaceous meteorites, which are believed to represent the initial composition of the Solar System for the non-volatile elements. However, several moderately volatile minor elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge) were found to be enriched over the CI meteorite composition, suggesting the outer region of the Solar Nebula, where comets such as Wild 2 are believed to have formed, may have contained higher concentrations of these elements than the inner region of the Solar Nebula, where the meteorites formed.

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Friday, February 22, 2008

Ruipeng Li, Visiting Scientist
CHESS, Cornell University

 

"Overview of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), China and a Capillary Test"

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CHESS/ERL Special Journal Club

Wednesday, February 20, 2008 -
3:00pm, 380 Wilson Lab

Roger Falcone, Professor of Physics and co-director of the Cal Teach Program - UC Berkely
Director, Advanced Light Source at LBNL

 

"A Proposed Soft X-ray FEL Facility"

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Friday, February 8, 2008

J.C. Séamus Davis, Professor
Physics, Cornell University

 

"Visualizing Complex Electronic Structure with Spectroscopic Imaging STM" (pdf)

Professor Davis will describe the development of spectroscopic imaging STM and review examples of how long-unsolved physics problems can be addressed with this exciting technique.

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NOTE: Talk will begin at 2:30pm

 

Friday, February 1, 2008

Andrew Smith, Associate Professor
Dept. of Biology, Ithaca College

 

"Gluing with an Iron Fist: how small snails turn gels into strong adhesives"

Gastropod molluscs such as snails and slugs secrete glues that create strong, temporary adhesion. These glues are dilute gels, containing over 95% water, yet the animals can be extraordinarily difficult to detach by hand. Furthermore, they can adhere to a wide variety of surfaces, whether dry or wet. Because of the novel characteristics of these glues, there is good potential for biomimetic applications. Recent work has shown that the glues are structurally similar to the lubricating gels the animals normally use for locomotion except for a few key changes. The primary change is the addition of specific proteins that have been labeled "glue proteins". Such glue proteins have been identified in four different species. The glue proteins have been isolated and they stiffen gels non-specifically. The major questions we are currently addressing focus on the structure of the proteins and how they trigger gel stiffening. A striking feature of the glues is the presence of iron bound tightly to the glue proteins. In addition, substantial quantities of other transition metals are present. Removing or binding these metals with a strong chelator blocks the ability of the glue proteins to function in several different assays. Comparisons of how tightly the metals are bound to the gel, and their separate effects on glue activation suggest that iron may play a central role. These observations suggest several possible mechanisms by which the glue proteins may act.

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NOTE: Talk will begin at 2:45pm

 

Friday, January 25, 2008

Lara Estroff, Assistant Professor
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Cornell University

"Formation and Characterization of Polymer-Reinforced Porous Single Crystals"

In this work, we characterize the internal structure of calcite crystals grown in an agarose hydrogel and show that the gel-grown calcite crystals, like biogenic calcite crystals, incorporate the organic matrix. The gel fibers are uniformly distributed within the crystals, without changing the regular rhombohedral morphology of calcite crystals. Etching of the gel-grown crystals with distilled water reveals an interpenetrating network of gel fibers and crystalline material. TEM examination of microtomed slices shows directly the porous internal structures of the crystals. Both electron-back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) demonstrate that the structures are single crystals of calcite.

I will also discuss the mechanism of gel incorporation during crystal growth. The effects of gel concentration, gel strength, and the concentration of calcium ions on the amount of incorporated gel were investigated by SEM and TGA. The results show that: 1) The amount of incorporated agarose increases roughly linearly with increasing gel concentration; 2) Crystals grown in a weaker gel (agarose IX) do not incorporate the organic matrix; 3) The amount of incorporated agarose initially increases and then reaches a constant value with increasing concentration of calcium ions. Based on these results, we propose the following mechanism: The gel network causes the growing crystals to incorporate the gel fibers by blocking mass transport to the growth fronts. Counter to this force, the crystallization pressure acts on the gel fibers to push them away. If the gel network is weak, the fibers will be pushed away by the pressure, while if the gel network is strong, the pressure will expand the gel network and the growing crystals will incorporate the fibers. The degree of expansion of the network decreases with increasing  supersaturation (calcium concentration). This work provides an in vitro platform to study the biomineralization of calcite and a potential approach to fabricate single crystals coupled with large internal surface areas.

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Friday, January 11, 2008

Mark Dumont, Associate Professor
Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics
University of Rochester Medical Center

 

"Improving Expression, Purification, and Crystallization of Eukaryotic Transmembrane Proteins for Structure Determination"

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CANCELED

Friday, January 4, 2008

Jocelyn Rose, Associate Professor
Director of the Cornell Institute for Sustainable Bioenergy Crops
Dept. of Plant Biology

 

"Proteomics Based Discovery of New Plant Cell Wall Localized Enzymes"

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